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Thursday, 26 August 2010 14:16

Unemployment, the Youth And Poverty

By Helena Selby

ACCRA, Ghana, August 26, 2010 (The Chronicle) - Unemployment in the world has become the hallmark of poverty. About half of the population in the world can be considered unemployed, especially those in the developing and under-developing countries. The day to day poverty in this world is attributed to the inability of the people attaining employment, not just a job, but a decent one off course.


In Ghana, unemployment has devoured the productive part of the labour force - that is the youth. Greater numbers of the youth in the country suffer unemployment on a daily basis, as graduate unemployment almost rules the day.


The rate of unemployment and the lack of decent jobs in the country, make it evident why the UNICEF predicts that Ghana is likely to miss targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) - Promoting gender equality and empowerment of women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.


If only employment will be coupled with decent work, then the standard of living of the people will be increased. In Ghana, even though research indicates that unemployment rate is about 21% among the youth between 20-24 years, the lack of decent work in the country is thrice the percentage of unemployment. Employment might, in a way, exist in the country, but how about its decency.


What is a decent job?

According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), decent work is the is a key element to building fair equitable and inclusive societies based around the principles of employment creation, workers rights, equality between men and women, socially protected, and socially dialogued.


To the ILO, decent work is a strategy to attain sustainable development that is centered on the people. Promoting rights at work means that all those who work have rights at work. This may be linked to the quest for continuous improvement in the conditions of labour for all workers, whether organized or not.


Decent work, in a nut shell, is the ability of the employee to have opportunities for work that is productive, have a fair income, security in the workplace, social protection/security, and better prospects for personal development. Moreover employees ought to have social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, participate in decisions that affect their lives, and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men.


The ability of the people the world over to attain a level of decency in their work life is almost a mirage, as unemployment, and the population of the world, increase minute by minute. The more employment is created, the more the population increases, and the more decent work fades away. According to statistics, about 200 million children between the ages of 5-15 years old, and who are of school going age, work for their survival, moreover about 12.5 million people are engaged in forced labour.


Decent work in Ghana

The definition of decent work and elements associated with it makes it clear that in Ghana, only a minute of the population have access to decent work. Many workers in Ghana lack even the basic incentives associated with their work, more or less ILO's decent work element. It is very rare to find an employee in Ghana being treated decently at the work place, considering the ILO's definition of a decent job.


Even though the minimum wage is not even enough to take care of a household with the frequent increase in goods and services, many institutions still deprive their workers the minimum working wage.


People are always scared to stand up for their right at workplaces, as they fear losing their jobs. Some, for the fear of their livelihoods, adhere to negative rules and working conditions at their various workplaces. According to research, more than one hundred workers are killed, several thousands imprisoned, tortured, and often sentenced to long prison terms as a result of standing up for their rights.


Moreover, hundreds of thousands of workers lose their jobs merely for attempting to organise trade unions, or carry out trade union activates at their workplace. In Ghana, the lack of employment opportunities compels many people to take the abuse of workers' rights in various situations.


When one tries to be brave enough to stand up for the right of the employee, the possibility of the rest of the employees abandoning him or her is high, as no one wants to risk losing his or her job.


For some employees, if they are exploited and abused, and at the end of the day they have just a little amount of money to feed their family, it is fair enough, as half a loaf is better than none.


The youth of Ghana, unemployment and decent work

It was good news for the youth to finally hear that the government had launched a national youth policy, however at the same time, many of the youth wonder how beneficial this policy will be for them, and how will the policy be implemented.


The youth make about 80% of the nation's population, and among the same youth who make up the greater part of the population, only a few are employed, and even those employed cannot be considered as having decent work. A good number of the youth die early, or are physically challenged, as a result of occupational hazards.


The discovery of oil in the country was a news, which a greater part of the population thought would bring down the prices of goods and services, as there was a great possibility of fuel prices reducing drastically, however, for some of the youth, they considered the news a redeemer.


Many of the youth have the notion that the discovery of oil in the country is a sure way of providing employment for them. This dream, however, might not come to a reality, as according to studies, employment opportunities in the industry are limited. The studies indicated that the Centre for Energy Economics of the University of Texas, predicts that the total jobs to be created directly and indirectly will be around 1,000, and that the FPSO, for instance, can take only 120 workers. Moreover, jobs in the petroleum sector require some specialised skills which are expensive to acquire.



According Mohammed Amin Adam Anta, one way the youth can benefit from the oil find is through public investments in sectors that directly impact on the youth.

According to the World Bank, the Ghana government's target for 2020 is to achieve higher economic growth of about 10% to achieve a middle income status using oil revenues, which is expected to reduce the high levels of poverty in the country.


Studies indicates that with the discovery of oil, and investors coming in to invest, the total revenue Ghana will gain is about $1 billion a year, which will be used for job creation and developmental projects for the people.


The creation of jobs will surely reduce poverty, but the question is, how sure and trustworthy can the government be to the nation. With an amount of $1 billion per year, how sure can the nation be that it will be used for the prospects of the whole nation, or will be a center of attraction for corruption in the government and associated agencies? It is expected that as it is a national cake, is will be shared fairly to prevent anarchy.


Впрочем, думать сейчас "Пластичность мозга. Потрясающие факты о том, как мысли способны менять структуру"об этом, пожалуй, поздновато.

Вы возглавляете "фильмы узбекские на русском языке скачать"организацию, которая, как "адъютанты любви книги скачать"предполагается, знает все.

За пять секунд все эти машины, "книга язык цветов"товарищ фельдмаршал, были приведены в "Книга от насморка"негодность.

Будем надеяться, что ничего "онлайн игра дальнобойщики скачать"такого прискорбного не случится.

Я увидел, "То, как мы работаем - не работает: Проверенные способы управления жизненной энергией"что тот вулкан "Раннее обучение чтению. Букварь"очень похож на Кракатау.

Потом подул ледяной "Радость победы"ветер и собаки исчезли, "скачать песни центр город дорог"а я остался один, замерзший и испуганный.


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